Linde plc

06 May.,2024


Linde plc

Largest global industrial gas producer

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Linde plc is a global multinational chemical company founded in Germany and, since 2018, domiciled in Ireland and headquartered in the United Kingdom. Linde is the world's largest industrial gas company by market share and revenue. It serves customers in the healthcare, petroleum refining, manufacturing, food, beverage carbonation, fiber-optics, steel making, aerospace, material handling equipment (MHE), chemicals, electronics and water treatment industries.[1] The company's primary business is the manufacturing and distribution of atmospheric gases, including oxygen, nitrogen, argon, rare gases, and process gases, including carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, ammonia, electronic gases, specialty gases, and acetylene.[1]

The company was formed by the 2018 merger of Linde AG of Germany (founded in 1879) and Praxair (founded in 1907 as Linde Air Products Company) of the United States. The resulting holding company was incorporated in Ireland, with principal executive offices in Woking, UK.[3]

The company is a member of the Hydrogen Council, a group of companies investing in hydrogen vehicles.[4][5] The company expects hydrogen vehicles to compete with electric vehicles and has invested in wind powered plants that convert water to hydrogen.[6]

The company is ranked 463rd on the Fortune Global 500[7] and 187th on the Forbes Global 2000.[8]





The company has two principal business areas: gas (industrial gases and medical gases), and engineering, procurement, and construction.





In the industrial gas area, the company uses the brand names Linde, AGA, BOC, TIG, Mox-Linde Gases, Afrox, Sigas and PanGas. HiQ is used as an identifier for high purity and premium specialty gases across all of these business brand names.

In the medical gas area, the company uses the brand names Linde Gas Therapeutics, AGA Medical, INO Therapeutics, Linde Homecare, and Farmadomo.

Linde Gas supplies industrial gases, medical gases, specialty gases, refrigerants and other chemicals. Depending on the gas and the quantity required, these may be supplied in portable high-pressure gas cylinders, in liquefied form by road tanker, from on-site gas generators or in gaseous form via pipeline to large customers. This division has four operating segments, Western Europe, the Americas, Asia & Eastern Europe, and South Pacific & Africa. These segments are subdivided into eight Regional Business Units (RBUs). The Gases Division also includes the two Global Business Units (GBUs) – Healthcare (medical gases) and Tonnage (on-site) – and the two Business Areas (BAs) – Merchant & Packaged Gases (liquefied and cylinder gases) and Electronics (electronic gases).

The product range includes hydrogen, acetylene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, shielding gases for welding applications, noble gases and specialty gases, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon, all of which are manufactured in Linde's air separation plants.

Linde Healthcare provides pharmaceutical and medical gas products and services for the healthcare industry such as oxygen therapy, aerosol therapy, anaesthesia, and gas for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, sleep apnoea and pain.

Linde Engineering




Linde Engineering designs and builds large-scale chemical plants for the production of industrial gases including oxygen, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, as well as large plants associated with the processing of natural gas, LNG, Liquefied petroleum gas and the manufacture of olefins. The Engineering Division develops process plants in the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) business worldwide.

The group has more than 1,000 process engineering patents and 4,000 completed plant projects. [9]

The product range includes:





Uranium used to produce the United States' first atom bombs from 1942 to 1948 was processed by Linde Air Products in Tonawanda, New York.[10] This company originally had been founded as U.S. branch of the German “Gesellschaft für Linde´s Eismaschinen Aktiengesellschaft” in 1907, but had been expropriated in 1917 and was integrated into Union Carbide & Carbon Corporation.[11]

: 82–83 

The New York Times reported in 1981 that 37 million U.S. gallons (140 million liters) of radioactive caustic wastes from the Manhattan Project was dumped into nearby shallow wells specifically chosen "to hide the source of the contamination".[12] Active remediation of sites in Tonawanda was completed in 2013 and have been in a long-term surveillance and maintenance since 2017.[13]

On 21 June 1879, Carl von Linde founded the Gesellschaft für Linde's Eismaschinen Aktiengesellschaft to develop further his work in developing mechanical refrigeration systems for the brewing and food industries. Following success in this market, he moved on to developing lower temperature systems resulting in 1895 in a patent covering the liquefaction of air. Out of this work his company developed equipment for the separation of air and other gases. Linde's process was patented in 1902 and immediately exploited by the first large-scale air separation plant installed in Linde's works in Höllriegelskreuth, near Munich in 1903.[11]: 67 

In 1906, Carl Von Linde decided to expand his oxygen extraction company overseas, targeting America, where no other companies had attempted industrial scale oxygen extraction. Along with Cecil Lightfoot, in 1907, he opened the Linde Air Products Factory, his first plant in America at Buffalo, New York.[14][15]

In addition to plants for air separation, in 1906, Linde engineers started working with others on processes to separate the constituents of water gas.[15] This work lead to the 1909 invention of the Linde–Frank–Caro process to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which were further key feedstocks for the emerging chemicals industry.

In addition to his interests in refrigeration, Carl von Linde had also partnered with Hugo Güldner and Georg Krauß and others in 1904 to form the Güldner Motoren-Gesellschaft mbH in Munich, which was moved to Aschaffenburg in 1906. Linde took full ownership of the company in 1929, and from this origin developed a business manufacturing first engines and tractors, and then from the 1950s onwards, a range of mechanical handling equipment such as fork lift trucks. Linde also acquired the Aktiengesellschaft für Industriegasverwertung (English: Corporation for Industry Gas Utilization), commonly referred to as the Heylandt Works.

Following World War I, Linde's U.S. assets were confiscated. They were incorporated into the Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) as the Linde Air Products division in 1917.[16] Eventually, in 1992, this part of Union Carbide was spun off as Union Carbide Industrial Gases Inc., and renamed Praxair. In 2018 this became part of Linde when Linde merged with Praxair.

In the years of Nazi Germany, Linde AG benefited from the country's attempt to become self-sufficient by refraining from imports of synthetic fuel and rubber. In 1935, general manager Friedrich Linde received the title of Wehrwirtschaftsführer, which underlined the national importance of Linde AG and allowed the company to further benefit from the German rearmament.[11]: 99 

Before and during World War II, all departments of Linde AG were in some way involved in the armaments production: The Heylandt-Gesellschaft für Apparatebau supplied the German rocket program, other branches produced welding equipment and engines for the armaments industry.[11]: 111  In 1941, Linde manufactured oxygen and helium installations for IG Farben at the Auschwitz concentration camp. Three further planned installations were not installed due to the course of war.[11]: 113–114  According to estimates of the company for mid-1944, between 400 and 500 people were used as forced labourers in production plants.[11]: 115  The company claimed that 75% of its production facilities were destroyed during the war.[11]: 126 

In 1958, the company tested a hydraulic drive system in the "Hydrocar".[15]

In 1989, the company acquired Lansing Bagnall, a British forklift manufacturer.

In 1996, the company acquired the rights to the Linde name from Praxair.[17]

In 2000, the company completed the acquisition of AGA AB of Sweden for $3.71 billion.[18][19]

In the early 2000, Brazilian auction was invented as a new type of auctions to trade gas by electronic auctions for Linde plc in Brazil.[20][21]

In 2004, the company sold its refrigeration division to Carrier Corporation for €325 million.[22]

In September 2006, Linde acquired BOC for €11.7 billion in cash.[23][24]

Linde's forklift business was rebranded as KION Group and sold to KKR and Goldman Sachs for €4bn in January 2007.[25]

In March 2007, the BOC Edwards semiconductor equipment business was sold to private equity firm CCMP Capital for €685m.[26][27][28] Also in March 2007, eight air separation units and related bulk gas business, with about 300 employees, were sold to Airgas for $495 million in cash.[29]

In April 2007, the company sold the industrial gas business of BOC Gazy to Air Products & Chemicals for €370 million or about $503 million.[30]

In 2008, the head office of Linde AG was relocated from its historic headquarters in Wiesbaden to the Angerhof building in downtown Munich.[31]

In 2010, the company acquired over 95% of the shares of Sri Lanka–based Ceylon Oxygen Ltd.[32]

In June 2011, PT Linde Indonesia, a subsidiary of Linde, announced its plan to build an air separation plant worth Rp.1 trillion ($117.33 million) in Cilegon, Banten to supply industrial gas to PT Krakatau Steel's steel plant.[33]

In May 2012, the company acquired the Belgium, France, Germany, Portugal and Spain homecare business of Air Products & Chemicals for €590 million.[34]

In August 2012, the company acquired Lincare Holdings, a healthcare gas provider in the US for US$4.6 billion to become the largest home care gas supplier in North America.[35][36]

In December 2012, the company acquired homecare company Calea France SAS.[37]

In February 2016, Lincare Holdings acquired American HomePatient, Inc.[38]

In December 2016, Linde Korea completed the acquisition of Air Liquide Korea's industrial merchant & electronics and liquid bulk air gases divisions, based in South Korea.[39]

In early June 2017, after almost a year of on-and-off negotiations, Linde and Praxair, the successor to UCC's Linde Air Products division, agreed to merge.[40]

In July 2018, the company agreed to sell certain business in North and South American assets to Messer Group and CVC Capital Partners for $3.3 billion to gain regulator approval for the Praxair merger.[41][42][43]

On 31 October 2018, the merger was completed except finalising divestitures required by the respective antitrust authorities.[44] On 1 March 2019 the company completed divestitures required by US antitrust authorities.[45]

On 28 February 2019, Matheson acquired Linde HyCO, divested to comply with the regulatory terms of the Praxair merger.[46]

On 9 August 2019 Linde partnered with CarbonCure Technologies.[47]

On 29 August 2019, the company acquired a 10% stake in Hydrospider, a Swiss producer and supplier of hydrogen derived from renewable energy sources.[48][49]

In October 2019, the company invested £28 million in ITM Power, a British manufacturer of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzers for hydrogen production via electro-chemical splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen.[50][51]

In January 2020, the company sold its LifeGas division.[52]

In April 2020, Gasum acquired the company's LNG and Biogas business in Sweden and Norway.[53][54]

In 2021 Linde and the Turkish construction company Renaissance Heavy Industries were awarded a contract to build a Liquified Natural Gas terminal at Ust-Luga in Russia.[55] Following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, sanctions were introduced which restricted Linde completing the contract. Russia accordingly froze assets of Linde in Russia, who has an exposure of €1 billion in the country.[56]

In September 2022, Linde sold Gist Limited to Marks & Spencer for £145 million.[57] Gist, headquartered at Chineham Business Park, Basingstoke, offers supply chain services including end-to-end management and customer fulfilment through transport and warehousing. Gist was acquired by Linde as part of its 2006 acquisition of BOC.[58]

Financial data

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Financial data in € billions[59] Year 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2022 Revenue 16.655 17.047 17.944 16.948 17.113 33.4 ($) Net Income 1.430 1.162 1.252 1.327 1.536 4.1 ($) Assets 32.749 34.425 35.347 35.189 33.513 79.7 ($) Employees 63,487 65,591 64,538 59,715 57,605 65,010





Industrial Gas Market Size In 2023 : Share, Latest Trends ...

"Industrial Gas Market" is expected to witness significant growth in the coming years, primarily driven by the growing demand for (Manufacturing, Chemical & Energy, Metals, Healthcare, Electronics, Food & Beverage, Others), Based on the type, the market can be segmented into (Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide, Acetylene, Argon, Others). The report presents the research and analysis provided within the Industrial Gas Market Research is meant to benefit stakeholders, vendors, and other participants in the industry. The Industrial Gas market is expected to grow annually by magnificent (CAGR 2023 - 2030).

Browse Detailed TOC of Industrial Gas Market report which is spread across 111+ Pages, Tables and Figures with Charts that provides exclusive data, information, vital statistics, trends, and competitive landscape details in this niche sector.

Who is the largest manufacturers of Industrial Gas Market worldwide?

  • Linde Group
  • Air Liquide
  • Air Products and Chemicals
  • Taiyo Nippon Sanso
  • Messer
  • Yingde Gases
  • Iwatani Corporation
  • Showa Denko K.K
  • Chemix Gases
  • Norco Inc.
  • SOL Group
  • Gulf Cryo
  • Buzwair Industrial Gases Factories
  • INOX Air Products
  • Kaimeite Gases Co., LTD.
  • Hangzhou Oxygen Plant Group
  • Masteel Group

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Short Description About Industrial Gas Market:

The Global Industrial Gas market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2023 and 2030. In 2022, the market is growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

Industrial gases are gaseous materials that are manufactured for use in Industry. The principal gases provided are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrogen, helium and acetylene; although a huge variety of gases and mixtures are available in gas cylinders. T

Market Analysis and Insights: Global and United States Industrial Gas Market

This report focuses on global and United States Industrial Gas market, also covers the segmentation data of other regions in regional level and county level.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the global Industrial Gas market size is estimated to be worth USD million in 2022 and is forecast to a readjusted size of USD million by 2028 with a CAGR of Percent during the review period. Fully considering the economic change by this health crisis, by Type, Oxygen accounting for Percent of the Industrial Gas global market in 2021, is projected to value USD million by 2028, growing at a revised Percent CAGR in the post-COVID-19 period. While by Application, Manufacturing was the leading segment, accounting for over percent market share in 2021, and altered to an Percent CAGR throughout this forecast period.

The industry producing these gases is known as the industrial gases industry, which is seen as also encompassing the supply of equipment and technology to produce and use the gases.

Global Industrial Gas Scope and Market Size

Industrial Gas market is segmented by region (country), players, by Type and by Application. Players, stakeholders, and other participants in the global Industrial Gas market will be able to gain the upper hand as they use the report as a powerful resource. The segmental analysis focuses on revenue and forecast by region (country), by Type and by Application for the period 2017-2028.

For United States market, this report focuses on the Industrial Gas market size by players, by Type and by Application, for the period 2017-2028. The key players include the global and local players, which play important roles in United States.

What are the factors driving the growth of the Industrial Gas Market?

Growing demand for below applications around the world has had a direct impact on the growth of the Industrial Gas

  • Manufacturing
  • Chemical & Energy
  • Metals
  • Healthcare
  • Electronics
  • Food & Beverage
  • Others

What are the types of Industrial Gas available in the Market?

Based on Product Types the Market is categorized into Below types that held the largest Industrial Gas market share In 2023.

  • Oxygen
  • Nitrogen
  • Hydrogen
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Acetylene
  • Argon
  • Others

Which regions are leading the Industrial Gas Market?

  • North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)
  • Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.)
  • Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam)
  • South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.)
  • Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

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This Industrial Gas Market Research/Analysis Report Contains Answers to your following Questions

  • What are the global trends in the Industrial Gas market? Would the market witness an increase or decline in the demand in the coming years?
  • What is the estimated demand for different types of products in Industrial Gas? What are the upcoming industry applications and trends for Industrial Gas market?
  • What Are Projections of Global Industrial Gas Industry Considering Capacity, Production and Production Value? What Will Be the Estimation of Cost and Profit? What Will Be Market Share, Supply and Consumption? What about Import and Export?
  • Where will the strategic developments take the industry in the mid to long-term?
  • What are the factors contributing to the final price of Industrial Gas? What are the raw materials used for Industrial Gas manufacturing?
  • How big is the opportunity for the Industrial Gas market? How will the increasing adoption of Industrial Gas for mining impact the growth rate of the overall market?
  • How much is the global Industrial Gas market worth? What was the value of the market In 2020?
  • Who are the major players operating in the Industrial Gas market? Which companies are the front runners?
  • Which are the recent industry trends that can be implemented to generate additional revenue streams?
  • What Should Be Entry Strategies, Countermeasures to Economic Impact, and Marketing Channels for Industrial Gas Industry?

Industrial Gas Market - Covid-19 Impact and Recovery Analysis:

We were monitoring the direct impact of covid-19 in this market, further to the indirect impact from different industries. This document analyzes the effect of the pandemic on the Industrial Gas market from a international and nearby angle. The document outlines the marketplace size, marketplace traits, and market increase for Industrial Gas industry, categorised with the aid of using kind, utility, and patron sector. Further, it provides a complete evaluation of additives concerned in marketplace improvement in advance than and after the covid-19 pandemic. Report moreover done a pestel evaluation within the business enterprise to study key influencers and boundaries to entry.

Our studies analysts will assist you to get custom designed info to your report, which may be changed in phrases of a particular region, utility or any statistical info. In addition, we're constantly inclined to conform with the study, which triangulated together along with your very own statistics to make the marketplace studies extra complete for your perspective.

Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of Russia-Ukraine War and COVID-19 on this Industrial Gas Industry.

Detailed TOC of Global Industrial Gas Market Research Report, 2023-2030

1 Market Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Industrial Gas 1.2 Classification of Industrial Gas by Type 1.2.1 Overview: Global Industrial Gas Market Size by Type: 2017 Versus 2021 Versus 2030 1.2.2 Global Industrial Gas Revenue Market Share by Type in 2021 1.3 Global Industrial Gas Market by Application 1.3.1 Overview: Global Industrial Gas Market Size by Application: 2017 Versus 2021 Versus 2030 1.4 Global Industrial Gas Market Size and Forecast 1.5 Global Industrial Gas Market Size and Forecast by Region 1.6 Market Drivers, Restraints and Trends 1.6.1 Industrial Gas Market Drivers 1.6.2 Industrial Gas Market Restraints 1.6.3 Industrial Gas Trends Analysis

2 Company Profiles 2.1 Company 2.1.1 Company Details 2.1.2 Company Major Business 2.1.3 Company Industrial Gas Product and Solutions 2.1.4 Company Industrial Gas Revenue, Gross Margin and Market Share (2019, 2020, 2021 and 2023) 2.1.5 Company Recent Developments and Future Plans

3 Market Competition, by Players 3.1 Global Industrial Gas Revenue and Share by Players (2019,2020,2021, and 2023) 3.2 Market Concentration Rate 3.2.1 Top3 Industrial Gas Players Market Share in 2021 3.2.2 Top 10 Industrial Gas Players Market Share in 2021 3.2.3 Market Competition Trend 3.3 Industrial Gas Players Head Office, Products and Services Provided 3.4 Industrial Gas Mergers and Acquisitions 3.5 Industrial Gas New Entrants and Expansion Plans

4 Market Size Segment by Type 4.1 Global Industrial Gas Revenue and Market Share by Type (2017-2023) 4.2 Global Industrial Gas Market Forecast by Type (2023-2030)

5 Market Size Segment by Application 5.1 Global Industrial Gas Revenue Market Share by Application (2017-2023) 5.2 Global Industrial Gas Market Forecast by Application (2023-2030)

6 Regions by Country, by Type, and by Application 6.1 Industrial Gas Revenue by Type (2017-2030) 6.2 Industrial Gas Revenue by Application (2017-2030) 6.3 Industrial Gas Market Size by Country 6.3.1 Industrial Gas Revenue by Country (2017-2030) 6.3.2 United States Industrial Gas Market Size and Forecast (2017-2030) 6.3.3 Canada Industrial Gas Market Size and Forecast (2017-2030) 6.3.4 Mexico Industrial Gas Market Size and Forecast (2017-2030)

7 Research Findings and Conclusion

8 Appendix 8.1 Methodology 8.2 Research Process and Data Source 8.3 Disclaimer

9 Research Methodology

10 Conclusion


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